What is Hydraulic breaker and how does it work?
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What is Hydraulic breaker and how does it work?

Views: 222     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-11-04      Origin: Site

1 What's hydraulic breaker?
2 What's the type of inner valve and outer valve?
3 What's the main parts of hydraulic breaker?
4 What's the prinple of hydraulic breaker?
5 What's the safety operation for the hydraulic breaker?

What's hydraulic breaker?

The Hydraulic breaker is also called a hydraulic hammer or rock hammer. It is a construction equipment that is used for the demolition of a building and breaking rocks or concrete into smaller sizes. The hydraulic breaker is one of the most popular excavator attachments and works on the principle of hydraulics. It applies high pressure from its small canister which has pressurized hydraulic oil stored in it. They are much more powerful than other hand-held hammers and their force is varied based on the force of piston strokes and their size.

Hydraulic breakers are powerful construction tools that are used for breaking or demolishing hard materials such as concrete, rocks, and asphalt. They are commonly used in construction, mining, and demolition projects. In this article, we will explore the definition, components, working principle, types, applications, advantages, maintenance tips, and safety precautions related to hydraulic breakers.

RAY hydraulic breaker type

What's the type of inner valve and outer valve?

The hydraulic breaker has two types namely inner valve type and outer valve type. The most representative inner valve type is the Soosan breaker, and the outer valve type is the Furukawa breaker. Both types have mostly the same components.

The hydraulic breaker encompasses a diverse range of variations, with two notable types prominently recognized: the inner valve type and the outer valve type. Within this classification, the Soosan breaker stands as a remarkable example of the inner valve type, while the Furukawa breaker represents the outer valve type. Although they fall under different categories, it is worth noting that both types share a significant resemblance when it comes to their constituent components. These components, which form the core of their functioning, exhibit striking similarities between the two breaker types, highlighting their common underlying design principles and operational mechanisms.

In the inner valve type, exemplified by the esteemed Soosan breaker, the hydraulic breaker is characterized by an internal valve system that regulates the flow of hydraulic fluid, thereby controlling the force exerted on the breaking tool. This intricate mechanism ensures precision and efficiency in breaking operations, allowing for optimal performance and increased productivity.

On the other hand, the outer valve type, epitomized by the renowned Furukawa breaker, features an external valve configuration that governs the hydraulic fluid flow, thus managing the striking power delivered to the working tool. This robust and reliable design enables effective and controlled breaking operations, catering to various demanding applications.

Despite their distinct valve arrangements, it is important to emphasize that both inner valve and outer valve types of hydraulic breakers share a substantial overlap in terms of their constituent components. These vital components include the hydraulic cylinder, piston, accumulator, control valve, and working tool, among others. Such uniformity in components showcases the industry's recognition of the efficiency and reliability offered by these common building blocks across hydraulic breaker designs.

The hydraulic cylinder, serving as the powerhouse of the breaker, converts hydraulic energy into mechanical force, driving the movement of the piston. The piston, in turn, delivers the necessary striking force to the working tool, enabling it to fracture and break the targeted material. The accumulator, functioning as an energy storage device, ensures consistent power delivery and absorbs any pressure fluctuations within the hydraulic system.

Furthermore, the control valve, a critical element in both types, regulates the flow and distribution of hydraulic fluid, allowing precise control over the striking force and timing. This control ensures the breaker's adaptability to various materials and working conditions, optimizing performance and minimizing potential damage.

Lastly, the working tool, such as chisels or moil points, attaches to the front end of the breaker and directly contacts the material being broken. Designed for durability and efficiency, these tools undergo rigorous manufacturing processes to withstand intense forces and deliver effective breaking action.

In summary, the hydraulic breaker landscape encompasses two prominent types: the inner valve type represented by the Soosan breaker and the outer valve type embodied by the Furukawa breaker. Despite their classification differences, these types share a remarkable similarity in their constituent components. This signifies the industry's acknowledgment of the effectiveness and reliability of these shared components in facilitating successful and efficient breaking operations.


inner valve hydraulic breaker


outer valve hydraulic breaker

What's the main parts of hydraulic breaker?

Cylinder: A cylinder that is the most important part of the hydraulic system. This contains the moving piston which strikes the tool. The seals for both ends of the piston are also located in the cylinder. The seals for the upper end of the piston are located in a removable seal retainer while the seals for the lower end of the piston are located in proves machined directly into the cylinder.

Piston: A piston transfers impact power to the tool, generated by hydraulic power. It is also present in both types of hydraulic breakers which convert kinetic energy into hammering energy a front head is featured to support the machine and one back head which contains nitrogen gas.

Valve: The valve controls reciprocates piston action with the hydraulic fluid distribution.

Seal retainer: the seal retainer has oil seals to seal Nitrogen(Nz) gas in the back head, and to prevent hydraulic o leakage.

Front head assembly: this retains the tool, using the tool pins. By removing these pins, the tool can be changed.

Ring bush: This guides the tool, Ring Bush limits the uppermost position of the tool. It is consumable parts, which should be checked for wear limits. If needed, they should be replaced.

Chisel: this transfers piston impact power to the objects. We recommend various tool shapes according to working circumstances.

Rod Pin: this is installed on the front head, and prevents the tool from coming off.

Back head assembly: this contains the cushion chamber charged with nitrogen(N2) gas that is compressed during upward strokes of the pistoning and serves to provide maximum absorption of the piston recoil, efficiently storing this energy for the next blow.

Through bolts: these are used to assemble the front head, the cylinder, and the back head. They have to be constantly tightened to the specified torque. Inspect the bolts for loosening, and re-tighten them weekly.


What's the prinple of hydraulic breaker?

Hydraulic breaker works on the principle of hydraulics by Blaise Pascal which states that “applying pressure on one part of a fluid transfers that pressure to all areas of the fluid, allowing for a multiplication of force”. Since the oil used is incompressible, it allows the transfer of power instantly with negligible loss.


The hydraulic breaker starts with its main valve in the cylinder. The hydraulic oil is supplied to the hammer through this valve. When an upward stroke takes place, the pressure in the upper chamber is released by the main valve and through the outlet. Then the high pressure in the lower chamber pushes the piston upwards.

As the piston reaches the upper end of the stroke, the main valve directs the flow to the upper chambers which makes it a high-pressure chamber. This causes the piston to move downward because of accumulated energy from the gas chamber, hence creating the impact stroke cycle. The energy is transferred to the tool that uses it to do various tasks.

At the point of impact, the main valve shifts, and the pressure from the upper chamber is released, enabling the upper stroke to take place.

Most hydraulic hammers come with fully enclosed housing over their parts not only to protect them from other materials but to ensure that they last longer. To increase the safety of the equipment to which the hydraulic hammer is attached, the models comprise shock absorbers at the top that absorbs all the impact and recoil energies. Moreover, the shock absorber also helps to protect the parts of the hydraulic hammer. Some of the hydraulic hammers are equipped with steel bushing in their bottom that isolates them from vibration.

Hydraulic hammers are environment-friendly because they produce less noise and pollutants. They are preferred in places that are sensitive to vibration and noise, as a vibratory hammer may damage the existing structures.

What's the safety operation for the hydraulic breaker?

For the safety operation, there are some suggestions to recommend. 

1. Stop working the hydraulic breaker, if hydraulic hoses vibrate excessively. Check the N2 gas pressure into accumulator & back head of hydraulic breaker.

2. Stop the hydraulic breaker operation as soon as the object is broken. If operation continued, idle blows, could result in excessive wear of major components, or parts damage such as inner bush or piston.

3. Do not use hydraulic breaker to move rocks with end of tool or with hydraulic breaker body.

4. Do not use tool as a lever. Hydraulic breaker could be damaged at through bolt,tool, front head inner bush and front cover.

5. Move impact point of object, if the object does not break with in 30 seconds.

6. Do not use hydraulic breaker in water. Corrosion of hydraulic breaker or non-lubrication, could result in further damage of the hydraulic components.

7. Under water kit must be installed when hydraulic breaker for working in water. Please contact to our dealer, if you need.

8. Do not use hydraulic breaker as hammering. Because of hydraulic breaker is much heavier than excavator bucket, such usage could result in damage of the front head or swing mechanism of the base machine.

9. Do not operate hydraulic breaker with boom or arm cylinders fully extended(bottomed out). This may result in hydraulic breaker shock, and damage to the base machine. Maintain 100mm cylinder stroke of base machine at least.

10. Do not curl the tool tip into arm or boom of base machine when travelling or parking carrier.

11. Do not strike in one spot for more than 30 seconds. If object dose not break, stop breaking after than change the spot of object. Working too long in one spot will create excessive stone dust under tool. Dust dampens impact effect, and can be damage piston seal.

12. Never use hydraulic breaker as a transporter. This could result in tipping carrier, or damaging on base machine.

13. Operate the hydraulic breaker only to the front and rear of base machine. Do not use hydraulic breaker at either side of base machine. This may result in tipping excavator, or in damaging carrier swing device.

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